Top of main content

How are independent schools preparing children for higher education?

Thirty years ago, a university education was the exception rather than the rule. Now, it's pretty much essential. At the same time, however, there's evidence that many universities aren't keeping up with changes in the world of work.

To power the fourth industrial revolution, employers need workers with strong technological skills, as well as the resilience and resourcefulness to tackle unfamiliar problems. According to research by Wiley Education Services, the global shortage of highly skilled workers was expected to reach around 35-40 million in 2020 1. That's almost 5 cities the size of London.

World of higher education changing to bridge the so-called "skills gap"

Research by UCAS shows that there is an increased emphasis 2 on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) degrees, while the British Council has pointed to a corresponding decline 3 in the past few years in the take-up of humanities subjects such as English, history and modern languages. Governments in countries like Britain have also been investing 4 in improving vocational courses, which have long been unfairly stigmatised as a second-rate alternative to university.

But is higher education really the source of this gap? What if it begins to open up much earlier, in the transition between school and university?

University of Exeter research 5 has shown that some qualifications leave young people unprepared for higher education. School exams are stressful, but they are infrequent. Students often take just one or two exams after a 2-year course. At university, they will be examined more frequently, not to mention the fact that, especially in lab-based subjects, they will be forced to work more collaboratively, too. If students spend all their time at university catching up with these new skills, then it's no wonder that they don't have the time to develop new ones for future employment.

What, then, are schools doing to ease this transition and prepare their pupils for higher education?

Learning to learn

With more freedom over how they structure their curriculum, independent schools are better placed than most to give their students the extra help they need. At Caterham School in Surrey, Southwest London, for instance, all sixth-formers take the school's Readiness course to give them experience of university-style teaching, with seminars and distance learning. The students are also encouraged to be more independent in their work and to do more research into their subjects than their exams require.

This process doesn't just start in the sixth form. Caterham's Learning to Learn programme operates throughout the school, teaching students skills like metacognition, self-organisation and note-taking to enable them to be more autonomous in their learning.

At West Sussex prep school Handcross Park in southern England, students in Years 3 to 8 have timetabled sessions to teach them team-building and higher-level problem-solving skills.

This allow[s] the children to understand how to work collaboratively to achieve a goal and to learn to listen.

Head Richard Brown says that the most important aspect of these sessions isn't, in fact, the didactic, teacher-led explanations of concepts and terms, but rather the time given up to the students for reflection and discussion of what has been learned.

Studying in the UK? Use this checklist to help you prepare.

Learning to work

Independent schools have also been leading the charge in preparing students for vocational courses. Westonbirt School in Gloucestershire, Southwest England, is one of many UK schools that have adopted Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualifications to give pupils a different route into higher education. Head Natasha Dangerfield initially had to convince parents that this vocational approach was as worthwhile as A-levels.

"Getting this past parents was hard," she says, "but many schools have managed this with great success and children benefit from developing their skills and their knowledge base in a very different way." She goes on to point out that companies like Apple, Google and IBM no longer expect all applicants to be graduates, and that Dyson has founded its own technical institute to train school-leavers for jobs in engineering.

Building character

All this talk of skills and qualifications, however, risks ignoring another aspect of higher education that students may find difficult. As well as learning to work independently, young people need to learn to live independently, too.

Emma Goldsmith, head of prep school Winchester House in Northamptonshire, argues that the foundations for this character preparation need to be laid early in a child's education.

Kindness, the way you treat other people – that is going to have an effect on their life post-school. They've got to start building those in right from the very beginning.

Strong co-curricular provision can help enrich young peoples' sense of themselves and their strengths, while at the same time encouraging them to work alongside other people. Community service is one increasingly popular way of teaching otherwise privileged students to work with people from a variety of backgrounds.

At Winchester House, Goldsmith has pioneered a correspondence scheme with local care homes to encourage students to offer support to vulnerable older people. In addition, the school runs a dementia-friendly choir, which stretches students' musical abilities while also teaching them to work with people in very different life circumstances from their own.

Alumni support

Leaving school for higher education can be daunting, but schools are using their alumni networks in higher education to help new arrivals settle in, as well as to provide school-leavers with work experience and internships.

These alumni networks have traditionally been the preserve of boys' schools. Now, all-girls schools are mobilising alumnae support to provide their students with role models in all professional fields and to encourage them to consider a range of subjects for higher education, including the historically disproportionately male STEM subjects.

Looking to the future

Independent schools are realising that the key to narrowing the skills gap may well be better preparation earlier on. This ensures that young people arrive at their higher-education destinations ready to take advantage of all the opportunities presented to them. There's no right way of doing this, but independent schools are developing new and innovative forms of teaching to cushion the transition between school and higher education.

Written by Talk Education

Talk Education is a dynamic digital guide to the world's best schools, produced by a team with a combined total of over 175 years' experience in this sector - unlocking the secrets of independent education for a global audience. Read reviews of the world's best schools, compare data on your favourites and find the perfect school for your child.

Ready to open an overseas account?

If you're an HSBC Premier customer, you can set up an overseas bank account ahead of time to make paying school expenses easier from afar.


We can tell you the best way for you to apply for an overseas account. Simply select your current location and where you would like to open an account. We'll then walk you through the steps.

If you're studying abroad, there's travel, accommodation and insurance to think about, too.

Learn more about our international services


HSBC Holdings plc has prepared this article based on publicly available information at the time of preparation from sources it believes to be reliable but it has not independently verified such information. HSBC Holdings plc and the HSBC Group (together, "HSBC") are not responsible for any loss, damage, liabilities or other consequences of any kind that you may incur or suffer as a result of, arising from or relating to your use of or reliance on this article. The contents of this article are subject to change without notice. HSBC gives no guarantee, representation or warranty as to the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of this article.


This article is not investment advice or a recommendation nor is it intended to sell investments or services or solicit purchases or subscriptions. This article should not be used as the basis for any decision on taxation, estate, trusts or legacy planning. You should not use or rely on this article in making any investment decision. HSBC is not responsible for such use or reliance by you. Any market information shown refers to the past and should not be seen as an indication of future market performance. You should always consider seeking professional advice when thinking about undertaking any form of prime residential or commercial property purchase, sale or rental. You should consult your professional advisor in your jurisdiction if you have any questions regarding the contents of this article.

1 Addressing the Skills Gap with Alternative Higher Education Options, Wiley Education Services. 2020.

2 Students Turn to Technology with University Choices, UCAS. Feb. 2021.

3 The British Academy UCAS (2017) End of Cycle Report - Historical and Philosophical Studies.

4 Vocational qualifications: raising the bar, Relocate Global.

5 More work needed to help students make successful transitions from revised A-levels to university, University of Exeter.